La phytothAi??rapie est une mAi??decine qui utilise des plantes (ou la ai???partie activeai??? de ces plantes) ayant des propriAi??tAi??s thAi??rapeutiques.

Lai??i??utilisation des plantes thAi??rapeutiques remonte Ai?? lai??i??antiquitAi?? et peut A?tre mA?me bien avant, mais de nos jours, on ne cueille plus les plantes Ai?? lai??i??Ai??tat sauvage, ceci tant pour la survie des espA?ces sauvages que pour le choix prAi??cis de lai??i??espA?ce botanique la plus riche en principes actifs. Une fois les plantes cueillies, on procA?de Ai?? lai??i??extraction des principes actifs par diffAi??rentes mAi??thodes. Les extraits pourront ensuite A?tre administrAi??s sous forme de gAi??lules, dai??i??infusions, dai??i??extraits.

Exemples de diffAi??rentes mAi??thodes de prAi??paration des plantes.

MacAi??ration

La macAi??ration est lai??i??opAi??ration qui consiste Ai?? laisser macAi??rer les plantes dans de lai??i??eau tiA?de. En fonction du type de plante, la durAi??e de macAi??ration est de 12 heures Ai?? 15 jours.

Infusion

Le principe de lai??i??infusion est de verser de lai??i??eau bouillante sur les plantes en miettes. Il faut laisser lai??i??infusion reposer 10 Ai?? 15 minutes avant de la boire.

DAi??coction

Les plantes en miettes sont portAi??es Ai?? Ai??bullition pendant 5 Ai?? 10 minutes, puis laissAi??es refroidir jusquai??i??Ai?? une tempAi??rature qui permet de boire la dAi??coction. La dAi??coction est filtrAi??e avant dai??i??A?tre bue.

Teinture mA?re

La teinture-mA?re sai??i??obtient par macAi??ration de la poudre de la plante sAi??chAi??e dans de lai??i??alcool Ai?? 40Ai??, 60Ai?? ou 80Ai??, avec un appareillage spAi??cial.

Poudre totale

La poudre totale est obtenue par cryo-broyage, cai??i??est Ai?? dire par pulvAi??risation de la partie active de la plante sA?che et broyage Ai?? froid sous azote liquide, Ai?? -196Ai??C. La poudre totale est conditionnAi??e en gAi??lules.

Extraits

Les extraits sont plus Ai??pais que la teinture. Les extraits sont obtenus en traitant la plante broyAi??e avec de lai??i??eau, de lai??i??alcool ou de lai??i??Ai??ther. 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